The Qualitative Method
Qualitative method can be an alternative to cover weaknesses in quantitative method, such as:
- Although relatively faster and with more coverage, quantitative method involves little or no contact with person or field.
- In the context of naturally occurring interactions, statistical correlations based on the concept of 'variable' are likely to be arbitrarily defined or more as results of fact speculation dominated by merely reasoning process.
- The pursuit of "phenomenon measuredness" could also mean that researchers crop just very problematic concepts and ignore the sharpening value that is strongly influenced by the ability of "discriminating" or "empathying".
- Although it is important to test hypotheses, the pure logic of statistics may neglect or underestimate the development of trivial and significance-fail hypotheses just to help generating hypotheses from data through grounded theory.
Qualitative method relates to human studies in natural context. This method uses various tools and techniques to develop a deep understanding on how humans perceive their social reality, how they act in a social world, how they try to make relation between events, perception and action; so that the analysis made on them must be holistic and contextual. Nevertheless, IISA Assessment, Consultancy & Research Centre carefully emphasizes the diversity and variety of qualitative approaches.
If the central values ??of the quantitative method is the objectivity and generalization, in which objectivity is maintained by technical means, e.g. through the distance between researchers and researchees, that is created through the provision of formal questionnaires, through replication of research, and the use of external examination upon the methods used; instead, a qualitative approach emphasizes the importance of creating “close to the investigatees”. This is because one purpose of qualitative approach is trying to describe the man’s view in the middle of social reality. Thus, techniques such as participant observation and unstructured or informal interviews are commonly use. Therefore, time and costs included in the qualitative work do not take samples from a large-scale data sets.
Five main forms of data collection marked by qualitative research among others are:
- Interviews and focus groups.
- Analysis of documents.
- Videos related to behavioral.
- Audio-recordings of communication.